As reviewed previously, an Electrostatic Discharge is a rapid, spontaneous transfer of an electrostatic charge induced by a high electrostatic field through a spark between two bodies at different electrostatic potentials as they approach or are separated from one another.
The ESD Association characterizes three models of discharge, Human Body Model (HBM), Charged Device Model (CDM) and Machine Model (MM). Each model is intended to follow specific discharge properties such as the rise and fall times of the discharge current waveform.
Today, we will discuss HBM and CDM.
Human Body Model (HBM) simulates a person becoming charged and discharging from a bare finger to ground through the circuit under test. Humans are considered a primary source of ESD and HBM can be used to describe an ESD event due to the combination of the capacitance of a human body and resistance of skin touching a sensitive component. Typically, you need to pay better attention to personnel grounding to eliminate HBM.
Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2016 section 3.4.1 Human Body Model (HBM)
HBM has been in use for over 100 years. It was first defined to allow measurement and evaluation of explosion hazards for underground mining operations. There are a few different test standards describing the HBM for military and commercial applications, but the differences are in the application of the test, calibration of the system, and other ancillary items. The waveform, as defined by the human body resistance and capacitance, is virtually identical among all the test standards. The most widely used standard is ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001. The HBM test standard uses a stressing circuit which charges a 100 pF capacitor to a known voltage and discharges through a 1500-ohm resistor as shown in Figure 3. The simulators are verified by measuring various features of the current waveform, some of which are shown in Figure 4. Full details for tester qualification and waveform verification are described in ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001.
Charged Device Model (CDM) simulates an integrated circuit becoming charged and discharging to a grounded metal surface. CDM can be used to describe an ESD event due to an integrated circuit that is suspended on a vacuum pick and then placed on a metal surface during assembly.
Manual operation and handling is much less likely these days as operations have become more automated. CDM is the most pragmatic discharge model in automated production today. Anytime a sensitive device is lifted from a tray and transported it is most likely generating a charge.
Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2016 section 3.4.2 Charged Device Model (CDM)
In principle, there are two variations of CDM. The first considers the situation of a device that is charged (through tribocharging) on its package, lead frame, or other conductive paths followed by a rapid discharge to ground through one pin or connector. The second considers the situation of a device which is placed in an electric field due to the presence of a charged object near the device. The device’s electrostatic potential is increased by this field. This process is sometimes referred to as static induction. The device will discharge if it is grounded while still in the electric field. In both cases, the device will discharge, the failure mode will be the same, and the failure type and location will be the same. The most widely used CDM standards use the static induction approach. In CDM simulators, the device is grounded by a pogo pin contacting one pin or lead of the device. The current through the pogo pin can be measured and recorded which is particularly important as the discharge current determines the ESD threshold, a schematic of this is shown in Figure 5.
Experimental results show that the CDM discharge current is very fast, with rise-times measured often below 100 ps with a “pulse width” (full width half-maximum [FWHM]) of less than 500 ps to1 ns, an example waveform with the key parameters is shown in Figure 6. By comparison, the HBM discharge has a typical rise-time of 2 to 10 ns and durations of hundreds of ns. Until 2014, the most commonly used CDM standards were JEDEC JESD22-C101 or ANSI/ESD STM5.3.1. These have now been superseded by ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-002.
So, why does it matter?
Different types of discharge can affect devices in different ways. HBM is a somewhat slow discharge and ranges from 10 to 30 nanoseconds. CDM is a very fast discharge which in turn means the energy has no time to dissipate. The CDM-type damage threshold is often 10 to 20 times lower than the one for an HBM-type discharge. If an HBM-type discharge causes damage at 2000V, it is not uncommon to have the same component damaged by a 100 to 150V CDM event.
Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2016 section 3.2.1 Threats in Electronic Production Lines
ESD threats in electronics manufacturing can be classified into three major categories:
- Charged personnel – When one walks across a floor a static charge accumulates on the body. Simple contact of a finger to a device lead of a sensitive device or assembly which is on a different potential, e.g., grounded, allows the rapid transfer of charge to the device.
- Charged (floating) conductor – If conductive elements of production equipment are not reliably connected to ground, these elements may be charged due to triboelectric charging or induction. Then these conductive elements may transfer charge to a device or assembly which is at a different potential.
- Charged device/boards – During handling, devices or boards can acquire a static charge through triboelectric charging or can acquire an elevated electrostatic potential in the field of nearby charged objects. In these conditions, contact with ground or another conducting object at a different electrostatic potential will produce a very fast ESD transient.
This categorization is useful in that each category implies a set of ESD controls to be applied in the workplace. ESD threats from personnel are minimized by grounding personnel through the use of wrist straps and/or footwear/flooring systems. Discharges from conductive objects are avoided by assuring that all conductive parts that might contact devices are adequately and reliably grounded. The occurrence of ESD involving charged devices or boards is minimized by a) preventing charge generation (low-charging materials, ionization) or b) by providing low-current “soft landings” using dissipative materials.
Since these preventive measures are seldom perfectly deployed, the overall threat of ESD failure remains and the risk ultimately depends on how well the controls are maintained and the relative sensitivities of the devices being handled.
SCS recommends reviewing your manufacturing process and determining what model is the most relevant for your facility. Are your components handled directly by hand or by a hand tool such as tweezers or a vacuum pick?
Finding the root cause of ESD events is crucial to solving the problem. SCS technology can identify events in areas like SMT line, soldering, printer and repair stations. SCS has instrumentation to identify component sensitivity and measure ESD events as well as ensure compliance within your facility.
The SCS CTM082 ESD Pro Event Indicator has a special CDM filter switch to filter and reject EMI signals that are not caused by CDM discharges. Make sure to set requirements for static voltage and discharge strength within your production environment based on the most sensitive component in production.
The SCS CTM048-21 EM Eye ESD Event Meter will calculate the event magnitude for HBM and CDM. It also logs the events to a microSD card so they can be downloaded to a PC. Solving ESD problems requires data; a before-and-after analysis of data may now be measured and used to tailor your ESD control program.
The SCS 770063 EM Aware Monitor is ideal for automated equipment and will provide an approximate voltage for the ESD event based on HBM and CDM models. The EM Aware Monitor has Ethernet network connectivity and communicates with our Static Management Program (SMP). All activity is stored into a database for on-going quality control purposes. SMP allows you to pinpoint areas of concern and prevent ESD events. Quantifiable data allows you to see trends, become more proactive and prove the efficiency of your ESD process control system.