Last time we learned the difference between conductors & insulators. We went on to explain what ionizers are and when you need them in your EPA. Haven’t had a chance to read that post yet? Catch-up here!
All up to speed now? Right, let’s move on: as promised, today we’ll be looking at the different types of ionizers available.

What is an Ionizer?
But first a quick recap of what an ionizer is: An ionizer produces positively and negatively charged ions that are moved to the controlled area with fan driven airflow. Ionization can neutralize static charges on an insulator in a matter of seconds, thereby reducing their potential to cause ESD damage.

Types of Ionizers
Electrical ionizers generate air ions by a process known as corona discharge. A high voltage is applied to one or more sharp points and quantities of air ions are created. Fans or blowers may be incorporated in the ionizer to assist the movement of the ions and enhance performance.

  1. AC Ionizers
    AC ionizers use a transformer to multiply the AC power line voltage. AC stands for “Alternating Current” which means that the power cycles from positive to negative sixty times per second. The AC ionizer therefore produces both positive and negative ions from the same points or emitters. The drawback with this approach is that many ions recombine because the cycle frequency is too fast. For this reason, most AC ionizers rely on fans or blowers to be effective.
  2. Pulsed DC Ionizers
    Pulsed DC ionizers utilize separate power supplies to generate positive and negative voltages and usually each power supply has its own dedicated emitters. The power supply alternates between positive and negative, but usually at a lower frequency than AC units. In this way, ion recombination is reduced and performance is increased. Airflow may then be reduced for operator comfort without sacrificing much performance. With pulsed DC, it is important to cycle at least two or three times per second to prevent harmful voltage swings on the object being protected.
  3. Steady-state DC Ionizers
    Steady-state DC ionizers also employ separate power supplies and emitters, but instead of alternating positive and negative, both supplies are on all the time as the name implies. As would be expected, there is some degree of recombination, however, the ion density is still greater because of continuous operation of both supplies. The offset or balance voltage at the output will normally be more consistent than pulse units.

There are also nuclear types of ionizers which are non-electric. They are more frequently used in flammable or explosive environments for applications other than electronics.

Ionizer Configurations

  1. Room Ionization
    This type of configuration will typically have multiple emitters just below ceiling height and will rely on some amount of air movement for moving the ions down to bench level. It used to be considered as the most effective way to protect large areas against ESD hazards. However, these days localized workstation ionization is recommended:

    • Product sensitivity has become much greater and long decay times of room ionization cannot be tolerated.
    • With room ionization, often only a fraction of the ionized area may be ESD sensitive. Localized ionizers bring protection to the areas where it’s needed and performance is often 10 times faster than the ceiling height system.
    • Localized ionization moves with the workstation (or to a new workstation) making it much more flexible with changing production line layouts.
      Advantages Disadvantages
      + Effective for large areas – Long decay times
      – Cannot easily be moved once set-up
  2. Workstation Ionizers
    These come in many shapes and sizes. Probably the best-known type is the benchtop ionizer which is about the size of an iPad mini and about 4 inch deep. They’ve been around for many years and are to this day still in high demand. Over the years, smaller and lighter units were developed. As workstation space is incredibly valuable, many users prefer the smaller units. Some benchtop ionizers can even be suspended above the bench using a flexible mounting arm. Whatever style is chosen, care should be taken to assure that items normally on the bench would not obstruct the flow of ionized air.

    Example of a Benchtop Ionizer – click here for more information

    A real benefit of benchtop ionizers is the fact that they can easily be moved between workstations. So, if you only have a small EPA with a few users and shared workload, you can save money by moving one ionizer between different benches.

    Advantages Disadvantages
    + Compact – Potential obstruction of air flow
    + Lightweight
    + Portable
  3. Overhead Ionizers
    Overhead ionization was established to solve the problem of items on a workbench blocking the flow of ionized air. Overhead Ionizers have a unique hanging capability and are suspended about 17 to 24 inch above the bench – either by hanging from chains or by using mounting brackets attached to a shelf or bench.

    Example of an Overhead Ionizer – click here for more information

    Using this method of ionization makes it very unlikely for items to block the flow of ionized air to the item being protected. In addition, the downward airflow is more consistent over the entire bench. To ensure that adequate air is delivered an overhead ionizer with 2 to 4 fans should be used. Overhead ionization is ideal for areas where bench space is limited.

    Advantages Disadvantages
    + Large & consistent air flow coverage – Heavy
    + Don’t take up valuable workspace
    + Items unlikely to block air flow
  4. Forced Air Ionizers
    Most companies address ElectroStatic Attraction, visual imperfections and contamination issues by dislodging charged dust and debris with compressed air ionizers. They use compressed air or nitrogen to neutralise static charges in localized areas – they are a quick “point-and-shoot” option. They are either hand-held or may be mounted in a fixed location.

    Example of a Forced Air Ionizer – click here for more information

    The main advantage of this type is that the user has the benefit of a strong air blast (20 to 100 P.S.I.) to help dislodge contamination, while the ionization in the air stream eliminates the static attraction of the particles at the same time. Hand-held air nozzle types will usually have a trigger or push-button to activate the air and ion flow, while the stationary-mounted type is frequently remote controlled with a foot pedal, photo sensor or some other switch closure.

    Advantages Disadvantages
    + “Point-and-shoot” operation – Use valuable workstation space
    + Strong air blast

SCS Ionizers meet ANSI/ESD S20.20 tested per ANSI/ESD STM3.1 and ESD TR53. What type of ionizer you choose depends on a lot of different factors. There is no right or wrong – just different options.

A few things you should consider before making any decisions:

  • Type of operation
    Depending on the work your operators are doing, one type/configuration of ionizer may have more benefits then another. For example, if your workspace is limited, an overhead ionizer might be the answer. On the other hand, if there is an issue with debris & dust in your operation, then a compressed air ionizer would be better suited.
  • Features required
    Does your ionizer need to be made of stainless steel? Does it need to use zero-volt technology? Do you need a cost-effective ionizer with built-in emitter point cleaners? Do activities need to be monitored and recorded with some sort of software? Make a list of what is an absolute must and where you can compromise – see next point.
  • Available budget
    Even though this one is the last one in this list, it by no means is the least important factor. Quite contrary, it’s generally one of the main considerations when investing in an ionizer. However, it kind of goes hand in hand with the previous 2 points. So, you may have to make compromises, e.g. on the features, depending on what monies are available…

Need help choosing? Check out our Ionizer Selection Chart!
Alternatively, why not request an EOS/ESD Assessment? It’s a great way to have an extra set of eyes look at your ESD control plan!

Ionization is one of the best methods of removing charges from insulators and as a result plays an important role in controlling ESD. Remember though: an ionizer is a secondary form of defense and does not eliminate the need for standard ESD control devices such as wrist straps, heel grounders and worksurface mats. It is only one element in an effective ESD program.

Also, ionizers require periodic cleaning of emitter pins and the offset voltage must be kept in balance. Otherwise, instead of neutralizing charges, if it is producing primarily positive or negative ions, the ionizer will place an electrostatic charge on items that are not grounded.

Good morning everyone – how is your Thursday going so far?
Over the next couple of posts, we’ll tackle another important aspect of any ESD Control Program: Ionization. But before we dig into the nitty gritty and explain the different types of ionizers, we’ll have to cover a bit of theory and discuss the different types of materials that can be found in an ESD Protected Area: conductors and insulators. But don’t worry – we’ll keep it brief!

Materials that easily transfer electrons (or charge) are called conductors and are said to have “free” electrons. Some examples of conductors are metals, carbon and the human body’s sweat layer. Grounding works effectively to remove electrostatic charges from conductors to ground. However, the item grounded must be conductive.

The other term often used in ESD control is dissipative which is 1 x 104 to less than 1 x 1011 ohms and is sufficiently conductive to remove electrostatic charges when grounded.

When a conductor is charged, the ability to transfer electrons gives it the ability to be grounded.


Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2008 section 2.5 Material Electrical Characteristics – Insulative, Conductive and Static Dissipative: ” A conductive material allows electrons to flow easily across its surface. Conductive materials have low electrical resistance. If the charged conductive material makes contact with another conductive material, the electrons will transfer between the materials quite easily. If the second conductor is a wire lead to an earth grounding point, the electrons will flow to or from ground and the excess charge on the conductor will be “neutralized”. Static dissipative material will allow the transfer of charge to ground or to other conductive objects. The transfer of charge from a static dissipative material will generally take longer than from a conductive material of equivalent size.
There is no correlation between resistance measurements and the ability of a material to be low charging. Static dissipative material shall have a surface resistance of greater than or equal to 1.0 x 10^4 ohms but less than 1.0 x 10^11 ohms. Conductor less than 1.0 x 10^4, and non-Conductor or Insulator 1 x 10^11 ohms or higher.” [ANSI/ESD S541 section 7.2]


  • Electrical current flows easily in conductors.
  • Conductors can be grounded.

Materials that do not easily transfer electrons are called insulators and are by definition non-conductors. Some well-known insulators are common plastics and glass. An insulator will hold the charge and cannot be grounded and “conduct” the charge away.

Both conductors and insulators may become charged with static electricity and discharge. Grounding is a very effective ESD control tool; however, only conductors (conductive or dissipative) can be grounded.

Insulators like this plastic cup will hold the charge and
cannot be grounded and “conduct” the charge away.

Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2008 section 2.5 Material Electrical Characteristics – Insulative, Conductive and Static Dissipative: “Virtually all materials, including water and dirt particles in the air, can be triboelectrically charged. An insulator is a material that prevents or limits the flow of electrons across or through its volume is called an insulator. A considerable amount of charge can be formed on the surface of an insulator.


  • Electrical current does not flow easily in insulators.
  • Insulators cannot be grounded.

Insulators are non-conductors and therefore cannot be grounded. Insulators can only be controlled by doing the following within an EPA:

  • Always keep insulators a minimum of 12 inch from ESDS items or
  • Replace regular insulative items with an ESD protective version or
  • Periodically apply a coat of topical Antistat.

All nonessential insulators such as coffee cups, food wrappers and personal items shall be removed from the workstation or any operation where unprotected ESDS items are handled.” [ANSI/ESD S20.20-2007 section 8.3]

“Process essential” Insulators
When none of the above is possible, the insulator is termed “process essential” and therefore neutralization using an ionizer should become a necessary part of the ESD control program.

Examples of some common process essential insulators are:

  • PC board substrate,
  • insulative test fixtures and
  • product plastic housings.

An example of isolated conductors can be conductive traces or components loaded on a PC board that is not in contact with the ESD worksurface.

Reduction of charges on insulators does occur naturally by a process called neutralization. Ions are charged particles that are normally present in the air and as opposite charges attract, charges will be neutralized over time.

A common example is a balloon rubbed against clothing and “stuck” on a wall by static charge. The balloon will eventually drop. After a day or so natural ions of the opposite charge that are in the air will be attracted to the balloon and will eventually neutralize the charge. An ionizer greatly speeds up this process.

A balloon “stuck” on a wall by static charge.

Ionizers and Neutralization
An ionizer creates great numbers of positively and negatively charged ions. Fans help the ions flow over the work area. Ionization can neutralize static charges on an insulator in a matter of seconds, thereby reducing their potential to cause ESD damage.

An ionizer creates positively and negatively charged ions.

Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2008 Ionization, section Introduction and Purpose / General Information “The primary method of static charge control is direct connection to ground for conductors, static dissipative materials, and personnel. A complete static control program must also deal with isolated conductors that cannot be grounded, insulating materials (e.g. most common plastics), and moving personnel who cannot use wrist or heel straps or ESD control flooring or footwear. Air ionization is not a replacement for grounding methods. It is one component of a complete static control program. Ionizers are when it is not possible to properly ground everything and as backup to other static control methods.

Note: Ionizers require periodic cleaning of emitter pins and the offset voltage must be kept in balance. Otherwise, instead of neutralizing charges, if it is producing primarily positive or negative ions, the ionizer will place an electrostatic charge on items that are not grounded.

The 2nd of the three fundamental ESD Control principles is to neutralize process essential insulators with ionizers:
Per ANSI/ESD S20.20-2007 Foreword “The fundamental ESD control principles are:

  • All conductors in the environment, including personnel, must be attached to a known ground
  • Necessary non-conductors in the environment cannot lose their electrostatic charge by attachment to ground. Ionization systems provide neutralization of charges on these necessary non-conductive items (circuit board materials and some device packages are examples of necessary non-conductors).
  • Transportation of ESDS items outside of an ESD Protected Area requires enclosure in static protective materials… Outside an EPA, low charging and static discharge shielding materials are recommended.

In addition, if a conductor is not grounded, it is an isolated conductor, and an ionizer is the only means to neutralize ElectroStatic charges on it.

Now that you know what conductors and insulators are, how to treat them in an EPA and when to use ionization, the next step is to learn about the different types of ionizers available. Stay tuned for next time.


As reviewed previously, an Electrostatic Discharge is a rapid, spontaneous transfer of an electrostatic charge induced by a high electrostatic field through a spark between two bodies at different electrostatic potentials as they approach or are separated from one another.

The ESD Association characterizes three models of discharge, Human Body Model (HBM), Charged Device Model (CDM) and Machine Model (MM). Each model is intended to follow specific discharge properties such as the rise and fall times of the discharge current waveform.

Today, we will discuss HBM and CDM.

Human Body Model (HBM) simulates a person becoming charged and discharging from a bare finger to ground through the circuit under test. Humans are considered a primary source of ESD and HBM can be used to describe an ESD event due to the combination of the capacitance of a human body and resistance of skin touching a sensitive component. Typically, you need to pay better attention to personnel grounding to eliminate HBM.

Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2016 section 3.4.1 Human Body Model (HBM)

HBM has been in use for over 100 years. It was first defined to allow measurement and evaluation of explosion hazards for underground mining operations. There are a few different test standards describing the HBM for military and commercial applications, but the differences are in the application of the test, calibration of the system, and other ancillary items. The waveform, as defined by the human body resistance and capacitance, is virtually identical among all the test standards. The most widely used standard is ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001. The HBM test standard uses a stressing circuit which charges a 100 pF capacitor to a known voltage and discharges through a 1500-ohm resistor as shown in Figure 3. The simulators are verified by measuring various features of the current waveform, some of which are shown in Figure 4. Full details for tester qualification and waveform verification are described in ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-001.

Charged Device Model (CDM) simulates an integrated circuit becoming charged and discharging to a grounded metal surface. CDM can be used to describe an ESD event due to an integrated circuit that is suspended on a vacuum pick and then placed on a metal surface during assembly.

Manual operation and handling is much less likely these days as operations have become more automated. CDM is the most pragmatic discharge model in automated production today. Anytime a sensitive device is lifted from a tray and transported it is most likely generating a charge.

Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2016 section 3.4.2 Charged Device Model (CDM)

In principle, there are two variations of CDM. The first considers the situation of a device that is charged (through tribocharging) on its package, lead frame, or other conductive paths followed by a rapid discharge to ground through one pin or connector. The second considers the situation of a device which is placed in an electric field due to the presence of a charged object near the device. The device’s electrostatic potential is increased by this field. This process is sometimes referred to as static induction. The device will discharge if it is grounded while still in the electric field. In both cases, the device will discharge, the failure mode will be the same, and the failure type and location will be the same. The most widely used CDM standards use the static induction approach. In CDM simulators, the device is grounded by a pogo pin contacting one pin or lead of the device. The current through the pogo pin can be measured and recorded which is particularly important as the discharge current determines the ESD threshold, a schematic of this is shown in Figure 5.

Experimental results show that the CDM discharge current is very fast, with rise-times measured often below 100 ps with a “pulse width” (full width half-maximum [FWHM]) of less than 500 ps to1 ns, an example waveform with the key parameters is shown in Figure 6. By comparison, the HBM discharge has a typical rise-time of 2 to 10 ns and durations of hundreds of ns. Until 2014, the most commonly used CDM standards were JEDEC JESD22-C101 or ANSI/ESD STM5.3.1. These have now been superseded by ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC JS-002.

So, why does it matter?
Different types of discharge can affect devices in different ways. HBM is a somewhat slow discharge and ranges from 10 to 30 nanoseconds. CDM is a very fast discharge which in turn means the energy has no time to dissipate. The CDM-type damage threshold is often 10 to 20 times lower than the one for an HBM-type discharge. If an HBM-type discharge causes damage at 2000V, it is not uncommon to have the same component damaged by a 100 to 150V CDM event.

Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2016 section 3.2.1     Threats in Electronic Production Lines
ESD threats in electronics manufacturing can be classified into three major categories:

  • Charged personnel – When one walks across a floor a static charge accumulates on the body. Simple contact of a finger to a device lead of a sensitive device or assembly which is on a different potential, e.g., grounded, allows the rapid transfer of charge to the device.
  • Charged (floating) conductor – If conductive elements of production equipment are not reliably connected to ground, these elements may be charged due to triboelectric charging or induction. Then these conductive elements may transfer charge to a device or assembly which is at a different potential.
  • Charged device/boards – During handling, devices or boards can acquire a static charge through triboelectric charging or can acquire an elevated electrostatic potential in the field of nearby charged objects. In these conditions, contact with ground or another conducting object at a different electrostatic potential will produce a very fast ESD transient.

This categorization is useful in that each category implies a set of ESD controls to be applied in the workplace. ESD threats from personnel are minimized by grounding personnel through the use of wrist straps and/or footwear/flooring systems. Discharges from conductive objects are avoided by assuring that all conductive parts that might contact devices are adequately and reliably grounded. The occurrence of ESD involving charged devices or boards is minimized by a) preventing charge generation (low-charging materials, ionization) or b) by providing low-current “soft landings” using dissipative materials.

Since these preventive measures are seldom perfectly deployed, the overall threat of ESD failure remains and the risk ultimately depends on how well the controls are maintained and the relative sensitivities of the devices being handled.

Taking Action
SCS recommends reviewing your manufacturing process and determining what model is the most relevant for your facility. Are your components handled directly by hand or by a hand tool such as tweezers or a vacuum pick?

Finding the root cause of ESD events is crucial to solving the problem. SCS technology can identify events in areas like SMT line, soldering, printer and repair stations. SCS has instrumentation to identify component sensitivity and measure ESD events as well as ensure compliance within your facility.

The SCS CTM082 ESD Pro Event Indicator has a special CDM filter switch to filter and reject EMI signals that are not caused by CDM discharges. Make sure to set requirements for static voltage and discharge strength within your production environment based on the most sensitive component in production.

The SCS CTM048-21 EM Eye ESD Event Meter will calculate the event magnitude for HBM and CDM. It also logs the events to a microSD card so they can be downloaded to a PC. Solving ESD problems requires data; a before-and-after analysis of data may now be measured and used to tailor your ESD control program.

The SCS 770063 EM Aware Monitor is ideal for automated equipment and will provide an approximate voltage for the ESD event based on HBM and CDM models. The EM Aware Monitor has Ethernet network connectivity and communicates with our Static Management Program (SMP). All activity is stored into a database for on-going quality control purposes. SMP allows you to pinpoint areas of concern and prevent ESD events. Quantifiable data allows you to see trends, become more proactive and prove the efficiency of your ESD process control system.

There is a lot of confusion out there as to what the difference is between resistivity and resistance. We get asked questions on a regular basis so hopefully this post will put an end to any misunderstanding – we’ll explain the difference between the two and will point out the measurements you really need to worry about when it comes to your ESD Control Program.

The difference between Resistivity and Resistance
“Resistance or resistivity measurements help define the material’s ability to provide electrostatic shielding or charge dissipation.” [Source]
However, resistance and resistivity values are not interchangeable. Let’s get a bit technical here to illustrate the difference between the two:

  1. The resistance expresses the ability of a material to conduct electricity. It is therefore related to current and voltage. In fact, the surface resistance of a material is the ratio of the voltage and current that’s flowing between two pre-defined electrodes.
    With a pure resistive material, where:
    – R is the resistance (expressed in Ohm W),
    – U is the voltage (expressed in Volt) and
    – I is the current (expressed in Amp).The unit of measure for surface resistance is ohms (W). It is important to remember that the surface resistance of a material is dependent on the electrodes used (shape as well as distance). If your company implements an ESD Control Program compliant to the ESD Standard ANSI/ESD S20.20, it is therefore vital to carry out surface resistance measurements as described in the Standard itself.
  2. The surface resistivity of a material describes a general physical property. It is not influenced by the shape of the electrodes used or the distance between them. “Surface resistivity, ρ,  can  be  defined  for electric current flowing across a surface as the ratio of DC voltage drop per unit length to the surface current per unit width.” [Dr. Jaakko Paasi, VTT Industrial Systems: “Surface resistance or surface resistivity?”]
    As Dr. Jaakko Paasi describes in his research note, surface resistivity can be expressed by using a concentric ring probe as
    – k is the geometrical coefficient of the electrode assembly,
    – rcentre is the outside radius of the centre electrode and
    – router is the inside radius of the outer electrode.For the electrodes recommended by ESD TR53 (Compliance Verification of ESD Protective Equipment and Materials), the coefficient k = 10.The unit of measure for surface resistivity is ohms (W) but in practice you will often see ohms/square (W/square) (which technically is not a physical unit).
    As previously explained, the surface resistivity does not depend on shape or distance of the electrodes used when performing the test. You can compare results freely – no matter what type of electrode was used to get the measurements in the first place.

Converting from Resistivity to Resistance
Values of surface resistance and surface resistivity become comparable if the measured surface resistance value is multiplied by the geometrical coefficient of the used electrode fixture.” [Dr. Jaakko Paasi, VTT Industrial Systems: “Surface resistance or surface resistivity?”]
If you measure surface resistance according to ESD TR53, then the corresponding surface resistivity can be calculated by multiplying the resistance value by the geometrical coefficient factor k = 10. Likewise, surface resistivities can be converted to surface resistances by dividing the surface resistivity value by 10.

Care is needed in interpreting results when measuring non-homogeneous materials such as multilayer mats or conductive-backed synthetic fiber carpeting containing a small amount of conductive fiber. Buried conductive layers can provide shunt paths. Be clear when stating what you have measured!
A few notes in regards to measuring surface resistance and resistivity:

  • On large surfaces, such as worksurface mats, readings will sometimes vary with increasing time of measurement. This is due to the ‘electrification’ of the mat beyond the area measured. It is therefore important to measure properly and to keep the duration of measurement constant. Fifteen seconds is an arbitrary but practical duration for measurement time.
  • Moreover, the materials needing to be checked in an EPA are most of the time, non-conductive polymers that have been made conductive or antistatic by addition of conductive particles or by special treatments during manufacture. The resistivity of such materials may vary from one point to another or they may be direction dependent (anisotropic).
  • ESD TR53 goes some way to specifying the procedures to be followed and test probes to be used, so that the results can be compared, at least roughly.
  • Also, the resistance of some materials may vary with humidity level and temperature. It is therefore good practice to take a note of these two parameters when measuring.

So now that we’ve identified what the difference is between surface resistance and resistivity, there is one more thing we want to cover in today’s post: the different types of surface resistances you will come across when dealing with ESD and how to measure them:

1. Resistance to Ground (Rg)
Resistance to Ground is a measurement that indicates the capability of an item to conduct an electrical charge (current flow) to an attached ground connection. The higher the resistance in the path, the more slowly the charge will move though that defined path.” [Source]
The Resistance to Ground is measured to ensure that surfaces in an EPA are correctly grounded. This is certainly one of the most useful measurements in an EPA.

Performing a Resistance to Ground Test

To perform the test:

  • One 5lb cylindrical probe is required for this measurement.
  • Connect the probe to a megohmmeter and place it on the surface to test.
  • Connect the other ohmmeter lead to earth or to an ESD ground point.
  • Measure the resistance at 10V for conductive items and 100V for dissipative items.

2. Resistance Point-To-Point (Rp-p)
A point-to-point measurement used during the qualification process evaluates floor and worksurface materials, garments, chair elements, some packaging items, and many other static-control materials.“ [Source]
Resistance Point-To-Point is used to assess the performance of an item used in an EPA.

To perform the test:

  • Two 5lb cylindrical probes are required for this measurement
  • Connect the probes to a megohmmeter.
  • Place the material to be tested on an insulative surface such as clean glass and place the probes on the material.
  • Measure the resistance at 10V for conductive items and 100V for dissipative items.
  • Move the probes to measure in a cross direction and repeat the test.

Point-to-point measurements are important during the qualification process for proper evaluation of flooring and worksurface materials. After installation, the resistance-to-ground measurement is more applicable since it emulates how the material really behaves in practice.” [Source]

3. Volume Resistance (RV)
Although this is one of the less common measurements when it comes to ESD, it’s still worth to mention the volume resistance here. You would measure the volume resistance when a non-grounded item such as a container is to be placed on a grounded item, such as a mat. The volume resistance will indicate whether the item can be used in the desired manner.

Performing a Volume Resistance Test

To perform the test:

  • Two 5lb cylindrical probes are required for this measurement
  • Connect the probes to a megohm meter.
  • Put the first probe upside down and ‘sandwich’ the test sample between it and the second probe placed on top.
  • Measure the resistance.


So hopefully we have put an end to any confusion in regards to surface resistivity and resistance and answered all your questions. If there is anything else you’d like to know, let us know in the comments.



Last time we explained how to easily create a compliance verification plan and why it’s important to have one in place. Today’s post will elaborate on the subject of periodic verification and highlight common products in your EPA that should be regularly verified and more importantly how they should be checked.

Why periodic verification
Compliance verification is a requirement of ANSI/ESD S20.20:
The Organization shall prepare an ESD Control Program Plan that addresses each of the requirements of the Program. Those requirements include:
– Training
– Product Qualification
– Compliance Verification
– Grounding / Equipotential Bonding Systems
– Personnel Grounding
– ESD Protected Area (EPA) Requirements
– Packaging Systems
– Marking” [ANSI/ESD S20.20 clause 7.1 ESD Control Program Plan]

Installed ESD Control products must be checked regularly to ensure they meet the required limits per the ESD Standard. “Compliance verification records shall be established and maintained to provide evidence of conformity to the technical requirements. The test equipment selected shall be capable of making the measurements defined in the Compliance Verification Plan.” [ANSI/ESD S20.20 clause 7.3 Compliance Verification Plan]

Below, you will find a list of the most common ESD Control Products in your EPA and how to test them:

Worksurface Matting
The purpose of ESD workbench matting is to ensure that when charged conductors (conductive or dissipative) are placed upon the surface, a controlled discharge occurs and electrostatic charges are removed to ground. However, this only occurs if the ESD worksurface is connected to ground. If the matting is out-of-spec, not grounded at all, or the stud on the mat has become loose or if the ground cord has become disconnected, charges cannot be removed.
Many companies use a daily checklist, which includes the operator having to verify that ground cords are firmly connected.
Remember to regularly clean your workbench matting to maintain proper electrical function. Do not use cleaners with silicone as silicone build-up will create an insulative film on the surface.
The company’s compliance verification plan should include periodic checks of worksurfaces measuring:

  • Resistance Point-to-Point (Rp-p) and
  • Resistance-to-ground (Rg)
Testing a worksurface using SRMETER2

A surface resistance tester can be used to perform these tests in accordance with ANSI/ESD S20.20 and its test method ESD TR53; if these measurements are within acceptable ranges, the worksurface matting and its connections are good.

Wrist Straps
As discharges from people handling ESD sensitive devices cause significant ESD damage, the wrist strap is considered the first line of ESD control.
Before handling ESD sensitive items, you should visually inspect the wrist strap to see if there are any breakages etc. The wrist strap should then be tested while worn using a wrist strap tester. This ensures all three components are checked: the wrist band, the ground cord (including resistor) and the contact with the operator’s skin. Records of each test should be kept. Wiggling the resistor strain relief portion of the coil cord during the test will help identify failures sooner. Analysis and corrective action should take place when a wrist strap tester indicates a failure.

Checking wrist straps using 746

It is recommended that wrist straps are checked at least daily. An even better solution to daily wrist strap checks is the use of continuous monitors. They will alarm if the person or worksurface is not properly grounded.

A note on worksurface matting and wrist straps: if you are using common ground points to ground the operator and/or work surface matting, remember to measure resistance to ground regularly as well (every 6 months for example).

Floor Matting
A flooring / footwear system is an alternative for personnel grounding for standing or mobile workers. Foot grounders quickly and effectively drain the static charges which collect on personnel during normal, everyday activities. Foot grounders should be used in conjunction with floor surfaces which have a surface resistance of less than 1010 ohms.
As ESD floors get dirty, their resistance increases. For optimum electrical performance, floor matting must be cleaned regularly using an ESD mat cleaner. Do not use cleaners with silicone as silicone build-up will create an insulative film on the surface.
Dissipative floor finish can be used to reduce floor resistance. Periodic verification will identify how often the floor finish needs to be applied. As the layer(s) of dissipative floor finish wear, the resistance measurements will increase. So, after some amount of data collection, a cost-effective maintenance schedule can be established.
Floor matting can be checked using a resistance meter. A surface resistance meter is designed to measure resistance point-to-point (Rp-p) or surface to ground (Rg) in accordance with ANSI/ESD S20.20 and its test method ESD TR53.

ESD Shoes or foot grounders play an essential part in the flooring/footwear system.
Before handling ESD sensitive devices, visually inspect your ESD footwear for any damage. Just like wrist straps, footwear should be checked while being worn using a wrist strap/footwear tester.

Checking foot grounders using 770750

Records of each test should be kept. Analysis and corrective action should take place when a footwear tester indicates a failure. Footwear needs to be checked daily.

ESD Packaging
Re-using shielding bags is acceptable as long as there is no damage to the shielding layer. Shielding bags with holes, tears or excessive wrinkles should be discarded.

An operator packing an ESD sensitive item into a Shielding Bag
Make sure your ESD shielding bags are un-damaged

It is up to the user to determine if a shielding bag is suitable for re-use or not. The testing of every bag before re-use is not practical. Many companies will discard the shielding bag once used and replace it with a new one. Others will use a system of labels to identify when the bag has gone through five handling cycles:

  • Non-reusable labels are used that require the label be broken to open the bag.
  • The bag is then resealed with a new label.
  • When there are five broken labels, the bag is discarded.

The same principle applies to other ESD packaging, e.g. component shippers.

Ionizers are intended to neutralize static charges on insulators thereby reducing their potential to cause ESD damage. However, poorly maintained ionizers with dirty emitter pins and out-of-balance ionisers can put a charge on ungrounded items.
Remember to clean ionizer emitter pins and filters regularly. You can now even purchase ionizers that will alarm when emitter pins need to be cleaned or the ionizer is out of balance.

Charge plate monitor and static decay measurements using 963E ionized air blower

Static neutralization (the ability to reduce or eliminate a charge on a surface) is an important quality for ionizers. Static decay time is defined as the time interval needed to reduce a defined voltage potential on an object to a defined lower potential by means of applied ionized air. Another important aspect for ionizers is the ability to produce a balanced stream of positive and negative ions. A charged plate monitor or equivalent can be used to accurately measure both of these parameters.
For more detailed information on measuring the performance of ionizers refer to the ESD standard ANSI/EOS/ESD-S3.1 for Protection of Electrostatic Discharge Susceptible Items-Ionization.

Wrist Strap/Footwear and Resistance Testers etc.
So, you check your wrist straps and/or footwear and workbench and/or floor matting regularly. But have you remembered the testers themselves? What good do all the checks do, if the testers you use are out-of-spec and show you incorrect results?
Yearly calibration is recommended – many manufacturers offer a calibration service or alternatively you can purchase calibration units from them and perform the calibration yourself.

There you have it – a list of the most commonly used products in your ESD Protected Area (EPA) that you should check on a regular basis.
Questions for you: Do you have a verification plan in place? If so, how often do you check your ESD protection products?

Every component in an ESD protected area (EPA) plays an important role in the fight against electrostatic discharge (ESD). Just one element not performing correctly could harm your ESD sensitive devices and potentially cost your company a lot of money. The problem with many ESD protection products is that you can’t always see the damage – think wrist straps! By just looking at a coiled cord, you can’t confirm it’s working correctly; even without any visible damage to the insulation, the conductor on the inside could be broken. This is where periodic verification comes into play.

When implementing an ESD control program plan, ANSI/ESD S20.20 asks for several requirements to be addressed, one of which is “Compliance Verification”:
The Organization shall prepare an ESD Control Program Plan that addresses each of the requirements of the Program. Those requirements include:

  • Training
  • Product Qualification
  • Compliance Verification
  • Grounding / Equipotential Bonding Systems
  • Personnel Grounding
  • ESD Protected Area (EPA) Requirements
  • Packaging Systems
  • Marking” [ANSI/ESD S20.20 clause 7.1 ESD Control Program Plan]

ESD protected area (EPA) products should be tested:

  • Prior to installation to qualify product for listing in user’s ESD control program.
  • During the initial installation.
  • For periodic checks of installed products as part of TR20.20.

A Compliance Verification Plan shall be established to ensure the Organization’s fulfillment of the technical requirements of the ESD Control Program Plan. Process monitoring (measurements) shall be conducted in accordance with a Compliance Verification Plan that identifies the technical requirements to be verified, the measurement limits and the frequency at which those verifications shall occur. The Compliance Verification Plan shall document the test methods and equipment used for process monitoring and measurements. If the test methods used by the organization differ from any of the standards referenced in this document, then there must be a tailoring statement that is documented as part of the ESD Control Program Plan. Compliance verification records shall be established and maintained to provide evidence of conformity to the technical requirements. The test equipment selected shall be capable of making the measurements defined in the Compliance Verification Plan.” [ANSI/ESD S20.20 clause 7.3 Compliance Verification Plan]

Components of a Verification Plan
Each company’s verification plan needs to contain:

1. A list of items that are used in the EPA and need to be checked on a regular basis
All ESD working surfaces, personnel grounding devices like wrist straps or foot grounders, ionizers etc. need to be included on the list. In summary: every item that is used for ESD Control purposes. It is recommended to create a checklist comprising all ESD control products as this will ensure EPAs are checked consistently at every audit.

2. A schedule specifying what intervals and how each item is checked
The test frequency will depend on several things, e.g.

  • how long the item will last,
  • how often it is used or
  • how important it is to the overall ESD control program.

As an example: wrist straps are chosen by most companies to ground their operators; they are the first line of defence against ESD damage. They are in constant use and are subjected to relentless bending and stretching. Therefore, they are generally checked at the beginning of each shift to ensure they are still working correctly and ESD sensitive items are protected. Ionisers on the other hand are recommended to be checked every 6 months: whilst they are in constant use, they are designed to be; the only actual ‘interaction’ with the user is turning the unit on/off. If, however, the ionizer is used in a critical clean room, the test frequency may need to be increased.

It is recommended that Wrist Straps are checked before each shift
Testing and monitoring of smock and ground cord assembly

Test frequency limits are not listed in this document, as each user will need to develop their own set of test frequencies based on the critical nature of those ESD sensitive items handled and the risk of failure for the ESD protective equipment and materials.

Examples of how test frequencies are considered:

  • Daily wrist strap checks are sufficient in some applications while in other operations constant wrist strap monitoring may be used for added operator grounding reliability.
  • Packaging checks may depend on the composition of the packaging and its use. Some packaging may have static control properties that deteriorate more quickly with time and use, and some packaging may be humidity dependent and may have limited shelf life.
  • Some materials, such as ESD floor finishes, may require more frequent monitoring because of their lack of permanency. Other materials, such as ESD vinyl floor covering, may require less monitoring. The testing of a floor should also be considered after maintenance on the floor has been performed.” [ESD TR53-01-15 Annex A – Test Frequency]

The industry typically uses 2 types of verification to achieve maximum success: visual and measurement verification. As the name suggests, visual verification is used to ensure ESD working surfaces and operators are grounded, ESD flooring is in good shape or wrist straps are checked before handling ESD sensitive items.

Actual measurements are taken by trained personnel using specially designed equipment to verify proper performance of an ESD control item.

3. The suitable limits for every item used to control ESD damage
ANSI/ESD S20.20 contains recommendations of acceptable limits for every ESD control item. Following these references reduces the likelihood of 100V (HBM) sensitive devices being damaged by an ESD event.

Please bear in mind that there may be situations where the limits need to be adjusted to meet the company’s requirements.

4. The test methods used to ensure each ESD product meets the set limits
Tables 1 to 3 of ANSI/ESD S20.20 list the different test methods a company must follow.

If a company uses other test methods or have developed their own test methods, the ESD control program plan needs to include a statement explaining why referenced standards are not used. The company also needs to show their chosen test methods are suitable and reliable.

It is recommended that written procedures are created for the different test methods. It is the company’s responsibility to ensure anybody performing the tests understands the procedures and follows them accordingly.

5. The equipment used to take measurements specified in the test methods
Every company needs to acquire proper test equipment that complies with the individual test methods specified in Tables 1 to 3 of ANSI/ESD S20.20. Personnel performing measurements need to be trained on how equipment is used. ESD TR53-01-15 lists test procedures and equipment that can be used to verify ESD Control items.

Checking an ESD Worksurface using a Surface Resistance Meter

6. A list of employees who will be performing the audits
Part of the verification plan is the choice of internal auditors. A few suggestions for the selection process:

  • Each individual is required to know the ESD Standard ANSI/ESD S20.20 AND the company’s individual ESD program.
  • It is essential that the selected team member recognizes the role of ESD control in the company’s overall quality management system.
  • It is recommended that each nominated worker has been trained on performing audits.
  • The designated employee should be familiar with the manufacturing process they are inspecting.

7. How to deal with non-compliance situations
Once an audit has been completed, it is important to keep everyone in the loop and report the findings to the management team. This is particularly vital if “out-of-compliance” issues were uncovered during the verification process. It is the responsibility of the ESD coordinator to categorize how severe each non-conformance is; key problems should be dealt with first and management should be notified immediately of significant non-compliance matters.

Results of audits (especially non-compliance findings) are generally presented using charts. Each chart should classify:

  • The total findings of the audit
  • The type of each finding
  • The area that was audited

It is important to note that each company should set targets for a given area and include a trend report. This data can assist in determining if employees follow the outlined ESD control program and if improvements can be seen over time.

If you followed our tips to fight ESD, you will have already identified all ESD sensitive items in your factory. You’re now at a point where you realize that you need to implement ESD Control measures. But where do you start? There is so much information out there and it can be completely overwhelming. But don’t panic – today’s blog post will provide you with a step-by-step guide on how to set-up a suitable ESD Control Plan.

The Organization shall prepare an ESD Control Program Plan that addresses each of the requirements of the Program. Those requirements include:

  • Training
  • Product Qualification
  • Compliance Verification
  • Grounding / Equipotential Bonding Systems
  • Personnel Grounding
  • ESD Protected Area (EPA) Requirements
  • Packaging Systems
  • Marking

 The ESD Control Program Plan is the principal document for implementing and verifying the Program. The goal is a fully implemented and integrated Program that conforms to internal quality system requirements. The ESD Control Program Plan shall apply to all applicable facets of the Organization’s work.” [ANSI/ESD S20.20-2014 clause 7.1 ESD Control Program Plan]

The selection of specific ESD control procedures or materials is at the discretion of the ESD Control Program Plan preparer and should be based on risk assessment and the established ESD sensitivities of parts, assemblies, and equipment.” [ANSI/ESD S20.20-2014 Annex B]

  1. Define what you are trying to protect
    A prerequisite of ESD control is the accurate and consistent identification of ESD susceptible items. Some companies assume that all electronic components are ESD susceptible. However, others write their ESD Control Plan based on the device and item susceptibility or withstand voltage of the most sensitive components used in the facility. Per ANSI/ESD S20.20-2014 section 6.1 “The Program shall document the lowest level(s) of device ESD sensitivity that can be handled.” A general rule is to treat any device or component that is received in ESD protective packaging as an ESD susceptible item.

    An operator handling an ESD susceptible item
  2. Become familiar with the industry standards for ESD control
    A copy of ANSI/ESD S20.20-2014 can be obtained from the ESD Association. It covers the “Development of an Electrostatic Discharge Control Program for Protection of Electrical and Electronic Parts, Assemblies and Equipment (Excluding Electrically Initiated Explosive Devices)” and “provides administrative and technical requirements for establishing, implementing and maintaining an ESD Control Program.”Also, consider purchasing the ESDA’s ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2016 for guidance on the implementation of the standard.
  3. Select a grounding or equipotential bonding system
    Grounding / Equipotential Bonding Systems shall be used to ensure that ESDS items, personnel and any other conductors that come into contact with ESDS items are at the same electrical potential.” [ANSI/ESD S20.20-2014 section 8.1 Grounding / Equipotential Bonding Systems]
    The elimination of differences in electrostatic charge or potential can be achieved in three different ways:
    – Equipment Grounding Conductor
    – Auxiliary Ground
    – Equipotential Bonding

    • Equipment grounding conductor:
      the first and preferred ESD ground is the electrical system’s ground or equipment ground. In this case, the ESD control elements and grounded personnel are connected to the three-wire electrical system equipment ground;
    • Grounding using auxiliary ground:
      the second acceptable ESD ground is achieved through the use of an auxiliary ground. This conductor can be a ground rod or stake that is used for grounding the ESD control elements in use at a facility. In order to eliminate differences in potential between protective earth and the auxiliary ground system it is required that the two systems be electrically bonded together with a resistance less than 25 ohms;
    • Equipotential bonding:
      in the event that a ground facility is not available, ESD protection can be achieved by connecting all of the ESD control elements together at a common connection point.
  4. Determine the grounding method for operators (Personnel Grounding)
    The two options for grounding an operator are:

    • a wrist strap or
    • footwear / flooring system

    Wrist straps must be worn if the operator is seated. We will talk about wrist straps in more detail at a later point. For now, remember to connect the coil cord part of the wrist strap to a Common Point Ground so that any charges the operator may generate can be removed to Ground.

    An operator using a wrist strap as a grounding method
    An operator using a wrist strap as a grounding method

    A footwear / flooring system is an alternative for standing or mobile workers. ESD footwear needs to be worn on both feet and only works as a grounding device if it is used in conjunction with an ESD floor. Just like with wrist straps, a future blog post will clarify the ins and outs of ESD footwear.

    An operator using a foot grounders on an ESD floor as a personnel grounding method
    An operator using foot grounders on an ESD floor as a personnel grounding method

    In some cases, both (wrist strap and foot grounders) will be used.

  5. Establish and identify your ESD Protected Area (EPA)
    ESD Control Plans must evolve to keep pace with costs, device sensitivities and the way devices are manufactured. Define the departments and areas to be considered part of the ESD Protected Area. Implement access control devices, signs and floor marking tape to identify and control access to the ESD Protected Area.
  6. Select ESD control items or elements to be used in the EPA based on your manufacturing process
    Elements that should be considered include: worksurfaces, flooring, seating, ionization, shelving, mobile equipment (carts) and garments.
  7. Develop a Packaging (Materials Handling & Storage) Plan
    When moving ESD susceptible devices outside an ESD protected area, it is necessary for the product to be packaged in an enclosed ESD Shielding Packaging. We will discuss ESD Packaging in more detail in a future blog post. All packaging, if used, should be defined for all steps of product manufacture whether inside or outside the EPA.

    An operator packing an ESD sensitive item into a Shielding Bag
    An operator packing an ESD sensitive item into a Shielding Bag
  8. Use proper markings for ESD susceptible items, system or packaging
    From ANSI/ESD S20.20-2014 section 8.5: “ESDS items, system or packaging marking shall be in accordance with customer contracts, purchase orders, drawing or other documentation. When the contract, purchase order, drawing or other documentation does not define ESDS items, system or packaging marking, the Organization, in developing the ESD Control Program Plan, shall consider the need for marking. If it is determined that marking is required, it shall be documented as part of the ESD Control Program Plan.
  9. Implement a Compliance Verification Plan
    From ANSI/ESD S20.20-2014 section 7.4: “A Compliance Verification Plan shall be established to ensure the Organization’s fulfillment of the technical requirements of the ESD Control Program Plan.”. Our next post will explain in detail how to create and implement a Compliance Verification Plan so stay tuned…
    However, developing and implementing an ESD Control Program is only the first step. The second step is to continually review, verify, analyse, evaluate and improve your ESD program:“Measurements shall be conducted in accordance with a Compliance Verification Plan that identifies the technical requirements to be verified, the measurement limits and the frequency at which those verifications occur. The Compliance Verification Plan shall document the test methods and equipment used for making the measurements. If the test methods used by the Organization differ from any of the standards referenced in this document, then there must be a tailoring statement that is documented as part of the ESD Control Program Plan. Compliance verification records shall be established and maintained to provide evidence of conformity to the technical requirements.The test equipment selected shall be capable of making the measurements defined in the Compliance Verification Plan.” [ANSI/ESD S20.20-2014 section 7.4 Compliance Verification Plan]
    Regular program compliance verification and auditing is a key part of a successful ESD Control Program.
  10. Develop a Training Plan
    From ANSI/ESD S20.20-2014 section 7.2: “Initial and recurrent ESD awareness and prevention training shall be provided to all personnel who handle or otherwise come into contact with any ESDS items.
  11. Make the ESD Control Plan part of your internal quality system requirements
    A written ESD Control Plan provides the “rules and regulations”, the technical requirements for your ESD Control Program. This should be a controlled document, approved by upper management initially and over time when revisions are made. The written plan should include following:

    • Qualified Products List (QPL): a list of ESD control items permitted to be used in the ESD Control Program.
    • Compliance Verification Plan: includes periodic checking of ESD control items and calibration of test equipment per manufacturer and industry recommendations.
    • Training Plan: an ESD Program is only as good as the use of the products by personnel. When personnel understand the concepts of ESD control, the importance to the company of the ESD Control Program, and the proper use of ESD products, they will implement a better ESD Control Program improving quality, productivity and reliability.

Electrical Overstress, or EOS, has become a widely-used term over the past few years. However, a lot of people are still unsure as to what exactly it is and how it differs from ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD). Today’s blog post is intended to put an end to the confusion.

What is Electrical Overstress?
One huge problem with Electrical Overstress, or EOS, is the fact that people use the phrase in different ways. Up until now there has been no widely recognized definition. A White Paper on EOS published by the Industry Council on ESD Target Levels in 2016 uses the following definition: “An electrical device suffers an electrical overstress event when a maximum limit for either the voltage across, the current through, or power dissipated in the device is exceeded and causes immediate damage or malfunction, or latent damage resulting in an unpredictable reduction of its lifetime.

Simplified, EOS is the exposure of a component or PCB board to a current or voltage beyond its maximum ratings.  This exposure may or may not result in a catastrophic failure.

ElectoStatic Discharge (ESD) versus Electrical Overstress (EOS)
You can compare an ESD event with a knocked-over glass of water on a floor: you’ll get a small puddle but once all the water has spilt from the cup, it’s gone. There is no more water left and the damage is fairly limited. [Source]

ESD can be compared to a knocked-over glass of water
ESD can be compared to a knocked-over glass of water

However, an EOS event can be compared to an open tap; there may be just a little drip in comparison but there is an unlimited amount of water available. After a while, the entire floor may be flooded and could cause some serious damage. As you can see, EOS events last several magnitudes longer than most ESD events. [Source]

EOS can be compared to a dripping tab
EOS can be compared to a dripping tab

By many, ESD is seen as just one type of electrical stress. EOS on the other hand, describes a wide number of outcomes resulting from multiple stresses or root causes.

ESD does not require a “victim” or damaged product. There will be an ESD event if two objects are at different charge levels and a rapid, spontaneous transfer of an ElectroStatic charge between them occurs. An electrical stress can only become an overstress (as in EOS) if we’re aware of how much stress the “victim” (i.e. sensitive device) can withstand. One specification used to document these limits is the “Absolute Maximum Rating” (AMR). More on that in a little while. Back to EOS and ESD for now. The below image highlights the relationship and contrast between EOS and ESD:

Relationship between EOS and ESD
Relationship between EOS and ESD [Source]
Generally speaking, EOS describes extreme signals other than ESD. The following table lists the main differences:

  ESD Event EOS Event
Cause Rapid discharge of accumulated charge Voltage and/or currents associated with operation of equipment or with power generating equipment
Duration Once accumulated charge is consumed, ESD event can no longer manifest itself Lasts as long as originating signals; no inherent limitation
Characteristics Have specific waveform which includes rapid rising edge and asymptotic read edge Can have any physically possible waveform as sources of EOS are often unpredictable
Occurrence Non-periodic and non-repeatable (accumulation of charge cannot be guaranteed) Mostly (but not always) periodic and repeatable

Differences between EOS and ESD [Source]

The importance of Electrical Overstress (EOS)
Many failures in the electronics industry can be contributed to EOS. Yes, ESD has received a lot of attention over the past years. However, ESD represents only a small percentage of total EOS damages.

Typical causes of device failures
Typical causes of device failures [Source]
As explained further above, EOS and ESD are NOT the same thing. This is extremely important because:

  1. EOS damages are much more common compared to failures caused by ESD.
  2. A comprehensive ESD Control Program will provide protection against ESD but not EOS.

Now that you have learned what EOS is, how it’s different from ESD and that ESD protection is not effective for EOS damage, the obvious question will be “How can I protect my sensitive devices from EOS failures?”. That’s where we go back to our “Absolute Maximum Rating” (AMR) mentioned earlier.

Absolute Maximum Rating (AMR) and Electrical Overstress (EOS)
We’ve established earlier that EOS is caused by exceeding specific limits of a device, the so called Absolute Maximum Rating or AMR.
AMR represents “the point beyond which a device may be damaged by a particular stress” [Source].

Interpretation of AMR*
Interpretation of AMR* [Source]
*the yellow line represents the number of components suffering catastrophic damage

  • Region A is the safe operating area in which devices are to operate as anticipated.
  • Region B does not guarantee for the device to function as it should. No physical damage is expected in this area; however, if a device is operated in this region for extended periods of time, it may cause reliability problems.
  • The upper limit of region B represents the AMR. Issues will arise if a device is operated beyond this point.
  • Region C is the first area of electrical overstress causing latent failures.
  • Region D is the second area of electrical overstress causing immediate damages.

Protecting your sensitive devices from Electrical Overstress (EOS)
As already stated, ESD Protection measures are useless when it comes to protecting your sensitive devices from EOS. “Rather, improvement and mitigation of EOS failure causes will only advance through better communication between the supplier and the customer. This includes proper understanding of AMR, realistic specifications for it, finding the root cause of EOS damage incidents, and identifying the field and system application issues.” [Source]


Happy Friday to everyone! Are you ready for another round of ESD updates? We’ve got a real gem for you today so let’s jump right in.
We’ve so far learned what ESD is and why ESD Protected Areas are so important. In today’s post, we want to arm you with 3 simple tactics to protect your ESD sensitive items. It’s easier than you think!

ESD Protection is a Requirement!
As electronic technology advances, electronic circuitry gets progressively smaller. As the size of components is reduced, so is the microscopic spacing of insulators and circuits within them, increasing their sensitivity to ESD. Industry experts estimate that average electronics product losses due to static discharge range from 8 to 33%. Others estimate the actual cost of ESD damage to the electronics industry as running into the billions of dollars annually. It is therefore critical to be aware of the most sensitive items being handled in your factory as the need for proper ESD protection increases every day.
Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2008 section 2.2: “Electronic items continued to become smaller, faster and their susceptibility to static damage increased…all electronic devices required some form of electrostatic control to assure continued operation and product reliability.”

Below you will find 3 simple tips to get ahead of the game.

1. Establish your ESD Protected Area
As a reminder, an ESD Protected Area (EPA) is a defined space within which all surfaces, objects, people and ESD Sensitive Devices (ESDs) are kept at the same potential. That means:

  • All surfaces, products and people are linked to ground.
  • Moveable items, such as containers and tools, are bonded by standing on a grounded surface or being held by a grounded operator.
  • Everything that does not readily dissipate a charge must be excluded from the EPA.

In our last post we talked in detail about how to set-up an ESD Protected Area so if you’re unsure where to start, catch-up with the post here.

Remember that it’s just as important to mark your ESD Protected Area as it is to have it set-up correctly in the first place. If your EPA is not clearly identified, operators will not realize that special pre-cautions are required when entering. You really don’t want an unprotected person wandering over and touching things on the ESD workbench. All your hard work, time and money could be wasted. Make sure you use signs and tape to distinguish your EPA from the rest of your workshop.

Employee working at an ESD Protected Workstation
An employee working at an ESD Protected Workstation

Some take-away points for you:

  • The ESD Protected Area (EPA) should have signage to clearly identify where it is.
  • All conductors including personnel must be grounded. Operators must either wear wrist straps or footwear in combination with an ESD floor. ESD working surfaces (e.g. mats) are to be grounded.
  • Wristbands are to be worn snug; the grounding tab of foot grounders must be placed under the foot in the shoe; ESD smocks need to cover all clothing on the torso.
  • Wrist straps and footwear are to be tested daily. For wrist straps a continuous monitor can be used instead.
  • Remove all non-essential insulators or neutralize essential insulators with ionizers.
  • Use packaging with shielding properties to store or transport ESDS outside the EPA.
  • Only handle unpackaged ESDs in an EPA when grounded.
  • Periodic checks of installed products (e.g. ESD working surfaces, ESD flooring etc.) are required.
  • Only trained or escorted people are to be allowed in the EPA.

2. Determine your ESD sensitive items
It is critical to be aware of the most sensitive item being handled in your factory. As with any type of control, there are several levels of protection. The method for choosing the necessary degree of ESD protection starts with defining your static sensitivity for electronic components. The ESD Association defines different classes of sensitivity for the HBM (Human Body Model) and CDM (Charged Device Model).

ESDS Component Sensitivity Classification
ESDS Component Sensitivity Classification

How can you determine the class of sensitivity of the devices within your facility? Look at your product flow through your facility, start at receiving and walk the components or products through until they are at dispatch ready to ship. Chances are, you have several different product flows through your facility. Each flow or loop will have specific components that enter or travel the loop. Make a list of all the sensitive components in each loop and determine the static voltage sensitivity or rating from each of the manufacturers. The lowest voltage sensitivity will dictate the sensitivity class of each loop. The philosophy here is “the chain is only as strong as the weakest link”. Each loop should have the required ESD protection for the most sensitive components that will travel this loop. This will define what class of protection is needed for each loop. You can have different class loops as long as the loops are closed, not allowing other components in. The objective here is to define a static control program to safeguard your most sensitive component.

Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2008 section 4.1.1 Determining Part ESD Sensitivity “The first step in developing an ESD Control Program plan is to determine the part, assembly or equipment sensitivity level under which the plan is to be developed. The organization can use one of several methods to determine the ESD sensitivity of the products that are to be handled. Some of the various methods are: 1) Assumption that all ESD products have a HBM sensitivity of 100 volts; 2) Actual testing of products using accepted test methods.”
Any ESD sensitive item should be identified with the ESD sensitivity symbol, either on itself or its container. The ESD Sensitivity Symbol (also called Susceptibility or Warning Symbol) identifies items that can be damaged by ESD and should ONLY be unpackaged and handled while grounded at an ESD protected workstation.

3. Train, train train!
No, we’re not talking about railway cars here. What we are referring to is teaching your employees. “Initial and recurrent ESD awareness and prevention training shall be provided to all personnel who handle or otherwise come into contact with any ESDS [ESD sensitive] items. Initial training shall be provided before personnel handle ESDS items. The type and frequency of ESD training for personnel shall be defined in the Training Plan. The Training Plan shall include a requirement for maintaining employee training records and shall document where the records are stored. Training methods and the use of specific techniques are at the Organization’s discretion. The training plan shall include the methods used by the Organization to verify trainee comprehension and training adequacy.” [ANSI/ESD S20.20-2007 section 7.2]

Training is an essential part of an ESD Control Program
Training is an essential part of an ESD Control Program

Perhaps the most important factor in a successful static control program is developing an awareness of the “unseen” problem. People are often a major factor in the generation of static charges. Studies have shown that personnel in a manufacturing environment frequently develop 5000 volts or more just by walking across the floor. Again, this is “tribocharging” produced by the separation of their shoes and the flooring as they walk.
A technician seated at a non-ESD workbench could easily have a 400-500 volt charge on his or her body caused not only by friction or tribocharging but additionally by the constant change in body capacitance that occurs from natural movements. The simple act of lifting both feet off the floor can raise the measured voltage on a person as much as 500-1000 volts.
Educating your personnel is therefore an essential basic ingredient in any effective static control program. A high level of static awareness must be created and maintained in and around the protected area. Once personnel understand the potential problem, it might help to reinforce this understanding by hanging up a few static control posters in strategic locations. The technician doesn’t need an unprotected person wandering over and touching things on the service bench.

In our last post, we talked about ESD: what it is, what types of ESD damage there are and what costly effects ESD can have. Missed our very first post? Catch-up here.
All caught up? Right, moving on. Today you will learn how to avoid ESD damage and protect your ESD sensitive items. So, let’s jump right in.

The fundamental ESD Control Principles
We’ve established that ESD is the hidden enemy in the electronics industry. Therefore, the BIG question is: how exactly do you control ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) in your workplace? Easy – just follow these ESD fundamentals:

  1. Ground all conductors including people
  2. Remove all unnecessary non-conductors (also known as insulators)
  3. Place ESD sensitive devices inside of shielding packaging when transported outside of an ESD Protected Area (EPA)

Per ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2008 section 2.4 “It should be understood that any object, item, material or person could be a source of static electricity in the work environment. Removal of unnecessary nonconductors, replacing nonconductive materials with dissipative or conductive materials and grounding all conductors are the principle methods of controlling static electricity in the workplace, regardless of the activity.

These are the essential principles of ESD Control. If you implement all three points above, you will be in control of ESD and your sensitive items will be protected. Well, that wasn’t hard, was it? Don’t be terrified – we’ll go through everything in detail. We’ll cover #2 and #3 in future points – today’s focus is #1.

Definition of an ESD Protected Area (EPA)
An ESD Protected Area (EPA) is a designated zone – all surfaces, objects, people and ESD Sensitive Devices (ESDs) within are kept at the same electrical potential. This is achieved by simply using ‘groundable’ materials for covering of surfaces and for the manufacture of containers and tools. This applies to all items with an electrical resistance of less than 109 ohms.

An EPA could be just one workstation or it could be a room containing several different workstations. It can be portable as used in a field service situation or permanent.

Example of an ESD Protected Area

The user guide CLC/TR 61340-5-2:2008 defines an EPA as follows:
An ESD protected area (EPA) is an area that is equipped with the ESD control items required to minimize the chance of damaging ESD sensitive devices. In the broad sense, a protected area is capable of controlling static electricity on all items that enter that work area. Personnel and other conductive or dissipative items shall be electrically bonded together and connected to ground (or a common connection point when a ground is not available) to equalize electrical potential among the items. The size of an EPA can vary greatly. A protected area may be a permanent workstation within a room or an entire factory floor encompassing thousands of workstations. A protected area may also be a portable worksurface or mat used in a field service situation.” [CLC/TR 61340-5-2:2008 Use guide clause 4.6 Protected areas (EPA)]

You’re probably wondering now, how exactly you can get all surfaces, objects and operators to the same electrical potential. Fear not – we’ve got you covered!

  1. Personnel Grounding
    As previously stated, a fundamental principle of ESD control is to ground conductors including people at ESD protected workstations.Wrist straps are the first line of defense against ESD, the most common personnel grounding device used, and are required to be used if the operator is sitting. The wristband should be worn snug to the skin with its coil cord connected to a common point ground which is connected to ground, preferably equipment ground.

    Wearing a wrist strap and connecting it to a common point ground

    If you are not using a continuous or a constant monitor, a wrist strap should be tested while being worn at least daily. This quick check can determine that no break in the path-to-ground has occurred. Part of the path-to-ground is the perspiration layer on the person; an operator with dry skin may inhibit the removal of static charges and may cause a test failure.
    The wrist strap system should be tested daily to ensure proper electrical value. Nominally, the upper resistance reading should be ” [ANSI/ESD S1.1 Annex A, 3 Frequency of Functional Testing]

    A Flooring / Footwear system is an alternative for personnel grounding for standing or mobile workers. Foot grounders or other types of ESD footwear are worn while standing or walking on an ESD floor. ESD footwear is to be worn on both feet and should be tested independently at least daily while being worn. Unless the tester has a split footplate, each foot should be tested independently, typically with the other foot raised in the air.
    Compliance verification should be performed prior to each use (daily, shift change, etc.). The accumulation of insulative materials may increase the foot grounder system resistance. If foot grounders are worn outside the ESD protected area testing for functionality before reentry to the ESD protected area should be considered.” [ESD SP9.2 APPENDIX B – Foot Grounder Usage Guidance]

    Both ESD footwear and ESD floor are required. Wearing ESD footwear on a regular, insulative floor is a waste of time and money.

    Wearing foot grounders on an ESD floor

    Part of the path-to-ground is the perspiration in the person’s shoes. The conductive tab or ribbon of foot grounders should be placed inside the shoe under the foot with the excess length tucked into the shoe. Thanks to the perspiration in the shoe, direct contact with the skin is normally not necessary.

    If an operator leaves the EPA and walks outside wearing ESD footwear, care should be taken not to get the ESD footwear soiled. Dirt is typically insulative, and the best practice is to re-test the ESD footwear while being worn each time when re-entering the EPA.

  2. Working Surfaces
    ESD working surfaces, such as mats, are typically an integral part of the ESD workstation, particularly in areas where hand assembly occurs. The purpose of the ESD working surface is two-fold:

    1. To provide a surface with little to no charge on it.
    2. To provide a surface that will remove ElectroStatic charges from conductors including ESDS devices and assemblies) that are placed on the surface.

    ESD mats need to be grounded. A ground wire from the mat should connect to the common point ground which is connected to ground, preferably equipment ground. For electronics manufacturing a working surface resistance to ground (RG) of 1 x 106 to less than 1 x 109 ohms is recommended.
    The single most important concept in the field of static control is grounding. Attaching all electrically conductive and dissipative items in the workplace to ground allows built-up electrostatic charges to equalize with ground potential. A grounded conductor cannot hold a static charge.” [Grounding ANSI/ESD S6.1 Foreword]
    Per ANSI/ESD S20.20 section Grounding / Bonding Systems Guidance, “In most cases, the third wire (green) AC equipment ground is the preferred choice for ground.
    Best practice is that ground connections use firm fitting connecting devices such as metallic crimps, snaps and banana plugs to connect to designated ground points. The use of alligator clips is not recommended.

    The working surface must be maintained and should be cleaned with an ESD cleaner. Regular cleaners typically contain silicone, and should never be used on an ESD working surface. ESD Handbook ESD TR20.20-2008 section Maintenance “Periodic cleaning, following the manufacturerís recommendations, is required to maintain proper electrical function of all worksurfaces. Ensure that cleaners that are used do not leave an electrically insulative residue common with some household cleaners that contain silicone.

  3. Other moveable objects
    Moveable items (such as containers and tools) are grounded when placed on a grounded surface or being held by a grounded operator. Everything that does not readily dissipate charge must be excluded from the EPA (refer to #2 of our ESD Control Principles above). Regular plastics, polystyrene foam drink cups and packaging materials, etc. are typically high charging and have no place at an ESD protective workstation.

    Intention of an ESD Protected Area (EPA)We’ve learnt in our previous blog post that ElectroStatic discharge (ESD) can damage components and products that contain electronics. A lot of the time, this damage is not detected during quality inspection and can cause significant problems further down the line.An ESD Protected Area (EPA) is an area that has specifically been created to control ESD; its purpose is therefore to avoid ALL problems resulting from ESD damage. Workers need to understand AND follow the basics of ESD control to limit the generation of electrostatic charges as well as limit and slow discharges in the EPA.Recognizing an ESD Protected Area (EPA)
    An ESD Protected Area must be clearly identified using signs and/or aisle tape. This ensures operators and visitors are alerted when entering (or leaving) an ESD Protected Area which require special precautions (grounding via wrist straps and/or foot grounders etc.). It also indicates that they are entering (or exiting) areas where exposed ESDS items can be handled safely.Remember to be consistent throughout your shop floor, i.e. use the same signs. This will avoid confusion for your operators.

    Example of an EPA caution sign

    While signs are one way of indicating the boundaries of an EPA, it is not the only way. Any alternate method that alert the personnel that an EPA begins is acceptable to ANSI/ESD S20.20. Some of the alternate ways to mark the boundaries of an EPA are:

    • tape on the floor
    • different color floor tiles
    • different color carpet
    • any other way to establish boundary conditions

    Anyway to distinguish the boundaries of an EPA would be acceptable as long as the personnel are aware of the indications and take the proper precautions while inside the EPA.” [ESD TR20.20-2016 section 9.1.2 EPA Boundary Indicators]

    Building an ESD Protected Area (EPA)
    A basic form of an ESD Protected Area is a workstation consisting of the following components:

    • An ESD working surface mat
    • A grounding cord
    • A wristband
    • A coiled cord
    • A common point ground

    To set-up an EPA:

    1. Connect the ESD working surface mat to the common point ground using the grounding cord.
    2. Link the operator to the common point ground using the wristband and coiled cord.

    Congratulations – you’ve just created an ESD Protected Area!
    By following the above steps, each component (the ESD mat and the operator) is kept at the same electrical potential (ground). Any ElectroStatic charge (ESD) is removed to ground via the common point ground.